Pathways to Equitable Healthy Cities

This project is part of the Wellcome Trust funded project "Pathways to Equitable Healthy Cities". All information regarding the Wellcome Trust project is available at

Nonoptimum Temperatures Are More Closely AssociatedWith Fatal Myocardial Infarction Than With Nonfatal Events

Ambient temperatures trigger hospitalisation, mortality, and emergency department visits for myocardial infarction (MI). However, nonoptimum temperatureerelated risks of fatal and nonfatal MI have not yet been compared.



From 2007 to 2019, 416,894 MI events (233,071 fatal and 183,823 nonfatal) were identifified in Beijing, China. A time-series analysis with a distributed-lag nonlinear model was used to compare the relative and population-attributable risks of fatal and nonfatal MI associated with nonoptimum temperatures.



The reference was the optimum temperature of 24.3C. For single-lag effects, cold (5.2C) and heat (29.6C) effects had associations that persisted for more days for fatal MI than for nonfatal MI. For cumulative-lag effects over 0 to 21 days, cold effects were higher for fatal MI (relative risk [RR] Q3 1.99, 95% confifidence interval [CI] 1.68-2.35) than for nonfatal MI (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.32-1.94) with a P value for difference in effect sizes of 0.048. In addition, heat effects were higher for fatal MI (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.24-1.44) than for nonfatal MI (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.91-1.08) with a P value for difference in effect sizes of 0.002. The attributable fraction of nonoptimum temperatures was higher for fatal MI (25.6%, 95% CI 19.7%-30.6) than for nonfatal MI (19.1%, 95% CI 12.1%-25.0%).



Fatal MI was more closely associated with nonoptimum temperatures than nonfatal MI, as evidenced by single-lag effects that have associations which persisted for more days, higher cumulative lag effects, and higher attributable risks for fatal MI. Strategies are needed to mitigate the adverse effects of nonoptimum temperatures.

Hu et a l 2023 CJC_NonoptimumT.pdf
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Associations between urban exposome and recurrence risk among survivors of acute myocardial infarction in Beijing, China

Few previous studies have investigated the impacts of coexposure to multiple urban environmental factors on the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) events. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between the urban exposome and AMI recurrence. We used data from 88,509 AMI patients from a large cohort obtained from the Beijing Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance System between 2013 and 2019. Twenty-six types of urban exposures were assessed within 300-m, 500-m, and 1000-m buffers of patients’ home addresses in the baseline and cumulative average levels. We used the Cox proportional hazard model along with the Elastic Net (ENET) algorithm to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of recurrent AMI per interquartile range increase in each selected urban exposure. The increased risk of AMI recurrence was significantly associated with lower urban function diversity in the 500-m buffer, longer distance to subway stations and higher PM2.5 for both baseline and cumulative average exposure. The cumulative averages of two urban factors, including the distance to parks, and the density of fruit and vegetable shops in the 1000-m buffer, were also identified as significant factors affecting the risk of AMI recurrence. These findings can help improve the urban design for promoting human cardiovascular health. 
Liu et al 2023 ER_ExposomeAMI.pdf
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Association of neighborhood physical activity facilities with incident cardiovascular disease

Background The availability of physical activity (PA) facilities in neighborhoods is hypothesized to infuence cardiovascular disease (CVD), but evidence from individual-level long-term cohort studies is limited. We aimed to assess the association between neighborhood exposure to PA facilities and CVD incidence.


Methods A total of 4658 participants from the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study without CVD at baseline (2007–2008) were followed for the incidence of CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke. Availability of PA facilities was defned as both the presence and the density of PA facilities within a 500-m bufer zone around the participants' residential addresses. Time-dependent Cox regression models were performed to estimate the associations between the availability of PA facilities and risks of incident CVD, CHD, and stroke.


Results During a median follow-up of 12.1 years, there were 518 CVD events, 188 CHD events, and 355 stroke events.  Analyses with the presence indicator revealed signifcantly lower risks of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% confdence interval ([CI] 0.65–0.99) and stroke (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.60–0.97) in participants with PA facilities in the 500-m bufer zone compared with participants with no nearby facilities in fully adjusted models. In analyses with the density indicator, exposure to 2 and≥3 PA facilities was associated with 35% (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47–0.91) and 28% (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56–0.92) lower risks of CVD and 40% (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40–0.90) and 38% (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46–0.84) lower risks of stroke compared with those without any PA facilities in 500-m bufer, respectively. Efect modifcations between presence of PA facilities and a history of hypertension for incident stroke (P=0.049), and a history of diabetes for incident CVD (P=0.013) and stroke (P=0.009) were noted.


Conclusions Residing in neighborhoods with better availability of PA facilities was associated with a lower risk of incident CVD. Urban planning intervention policies that increase the availability of PA facilities could contribute to CVD prevention.

Huang et al 2023 IJHG_PAfacilities.pdf
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Geographic Variation in Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction and Association With Health Care Accessibility in Beijing, 2007 to 2018

BACKGROUND: Little is known about geographic variation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality within fast-developing megacities and whether changes in health care accessibility correspond to changes in AMI mortality at the small-area level.


METHODS AND RESULTS: We included data of 94106 AMI deaths during 2007 to 2018 from the Beijing Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance System in this ecological study. We estimated AMI mortality for 307 townships during consecutive 3-year periods with a Bayesian spatial model. Township-level health care accessibility was measured using an enhanced 2-step floating catchment area method. Linear regression models were used to examine the association between health care accessibility and AMI mortality. During 2007 to 2018, median AMI mortality in townships declined from 86.3 (95% CI, 34.2–173.8) to 49.4 (95% CI, 30.5–73.7) per 100000 population. The decrease in AMI mortality was larger in townships where health care accessibility increased more rapidly. Geographic inequality, defined as the ratio of the 90th to 10th percentile of mortality in townships, increased from 3.4 to 3.8. In total, 86.3% (265/307) of townships had an increase in health care accessibility. Each 10% increase in health care accessibility was associated with a −0.71% (95% CI, −1.08% to −0.33%) change in AMI mortality.


CONCLUSIONS: Geographic disparities in AMI mortality among Beijing townships are large and increasing. A relative increase in township-level health care accessibility is associated with a relative decrease in AMI mortality. Targeted improvement of health care accessibility in areas with high AMI mortality may help reduce AMI burden and improve its geographic inequality in megacities.

Chang et al 2023 JAHA_HealthCare.pdf
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Special Issue in Journal of Human Settlements in West China

龙瀛 2023 西部人居环境学刊_卷首语.pdf
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王琳等 2023 西部人居环境学刊_疫情空间风险.pdf
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黄骁然等 2023 西部人居环境学刊_养老助餐设施.pdf
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刘明浩等 2023 西部人居环境学刊_情绪与建成环境.pdf
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李栋等 2023 西部人居环境学刊_健康城市评价体系.pdf
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来源等 2023 西部人居环境学刊_多尺度健康数据.pdf
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苏昱玮等 2023 西部人居环境学刊_急救可达性.pdf
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Using street view imagery to examine the association between urban neighborhood disorder and the long-term recurrence risk of patients discharged with acute myocardial infarction in central Beijing, China

Background: To examine the association between urban neighborhood disorder and the recurrence risk of patients  with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in central Beijing, China. 


Methods: Recurrent AMI was identified by the Beijing Monitoring System for Cardiovascular Diseases through the end of 2019 for patients discharged with AMI between 2007 and 2017. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate associations between neighborhood disorder and AMI recurrence.


Results: Of 66,238 AMI patients, 11,872 had a recurrent event, and 3117 died from AMI during a median followup of 5.92 years. After covariate adjustment, AMI patients living in the high tertile of neighborhood disorder had a higher recurrence risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.08, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.14) compared with those in the low tertile. A stronger association was noted for fatal recurrent AMI (HR 1.21, 95 % CI 1.10–1.34). The association was mainly observed in females (HR 1.04, 95 % CI: 1.02 to 1.06).


Conclusions: Serious neighborhood disorder may contribute to higher recurrence risk, particularly fatal recurrence, among AMI patients. Policies to eliminate neighborhood disorders may play an important role in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. 

Zhang et al 2023 Cities_AMI.pdf
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Accessibility and Equity of Emergency Medical Care: A Case Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction

Acute myocardial infarction is a critical type of cardiovascular disease with rapid onset and high mortality rate. Without timely medical treatment, patients may suffer from complete necrosis of myocardium and eventually lead to death due to inadequate blood vessel clearance. Early Percutaneous Coronary Intervention surgery after acute myocardial infarction can greatly reduce patient mortality rate. However, according to monitoring data, 12.3% of heart disease patients in Beijing die on their way to hospitals. Therefore, accurately measuring the accessibility of medical treatment for acute myocardial infarction, assessing medical fairness, and optimizing the allocation of medical resources are of great significance to ensure the people's health and life. 
This study takes the acute myocardial infarction patient treatment as a simulation scenario, and explores methods of accurately measuring the accessibility of medical facilities by combining new data and new methods based on map Web API. The medical accessibility of residential communities in Beijing at different times of the day is accurately measured by combining big data on population. Then, using the geographic detector model, the relations between Social Economic Status and acute myocardial infarction medical accessibility is analyzed, and the fairness of medical treatment from the perspective of spatial differentiation is assessed. It identifies the deprived groups and regions in the medical treatment space, and provides research references for optimizing the layout of medical facilities.


This study has three main findings: 1) the overall medical accessibility of residential areas in Beijing is good. When patients suffer from acute myocardial infarction, they can reach the nearest hospital capable of performing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention surgery within 120 minutes of the golden treatment time. However, at different times, medical accessibility shows significant differences. Medical accessibility during the rush hour (7:00-9:00) is the worst, while medical accessibility at 0:00-7:00 is the best. In addition, the urban medical treatment spatial pattern has obvious spatial differentiation and aggregation characteristics. The accessibility in the peripheral areas is significantly different from that in the central urban area, where the accessibility in the area within the Fifth Ring Road is far better than that outside the Fifth Ring Road. Some areas in the southwest and north of Beijing have poor accessibility. Furthermore, the population within the Fifth Ring Road has more medical resources than that outside the Fifth Ring Road, while it is the opposite for the access to medical resources. There is a certain degree of mismatch between the population and medical resources inside and outside the Fifth Ring Road. 2) The layout of medical resources is somewhat unfair, and spatial deprivation of deprived groups appears. Specifically, the higher the average years of education and family income, the better the medical accessibility, while the longer it takes for people engaged in blue-collar work to reach medical facilities. Among these factors, the average years of education has the strongest explanatory power, and both the average years of education and family income have a double-factor enhancement effect on medical accessibility. 

苏昱玮等 2023 西部人居环境学刊_急救可达性.pdf
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Driving Time to the Nearest Percutaneous Coronary    Intervention‐Capable Hospital and the Risk of Case Fatality in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction in Beijing

Timely arrival at a hospital capable of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is critical in treating acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We examined the association between driving time to the nearest PCI‐capable hospital and case fatality among AMI patients. A total of 142,474 AMI events during 2013–2019 from the Beijing Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance System were included in this cross‐sectional study. The driving time from the residential address to the nearestPCI‐capable hospital was calculated. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of AMI death associated with driving time. In 2019, 54.5% of patients lived within a 15‐min drive to a PCI‐capable hospital, with a higher proportion in urban than peri‐urban areas (71.2% vs. 31.8%, p < 0.001). Compared with patients who had driving times ≤15 min, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI, p value) for AMI fatality risk associated with driving times 16–30, 31–45, and >45 min were 1.068 (95% CI 1.033–1.104, p < 0.001), 1.189 (95% CI 1.127–1.255, p < 0.001), and 1.436 (95% CI 1.334–1.544, p < 0.001), respectively. Despite the high accessibility to PCI‐capable hospitals for AMI patients in Beijing, inequality between urban and peri‐urban areas exists. A longer driving time is associated with an

elevated AMI fatality risk. These findings may help guide the allocation of health resources.

Chang et al 2023 IJERPH_DrivingTime.pdf
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Smart technologies for fighting against pandemics: Observations from China during COVID-19

In recent years, pandemics have become one of the most significant challenges due to their huge socio-economic  impacts. Fortunately, smart technologies have provided new ideas to fight against them. Many studies have focused  on analyzing particular technologies applied in pandemics, but few have systematically discussed the difference and the relationship among multiple perspectives. China is well represented in the development of technologies and pandemic responses. Therefore, this paper uses China’s response to COVID-19 as an empirical study to systematically review the application of smart technologies and build a case base from multiple perspectives. A total of 1,102 cases from 14 technologies were collected from January 2020 to June 2020 after screening, and a series of analyses were conducted in terms of types, scales, stages, and targets. The result shows various subjects participated in pandemic responses using smart technologies. General technologies such as Big Data and Mobile Internet are most widely used. Besides, most technologies are used on the country or district/city scales and focus on the prevention and control of pandemics. There are significant differences in the penetration of technologies among different perspectives. We hope to provide a reference for applying smart technologies against pandemics in the future.

Li and Long 2022 TUS_ Pandemics.pdf
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Neighborhood infrastructure-related risk factors and non-communicable diseases: a systematic meta-review



With rapid urbanization, the urban environment, especially the neighborhood environment, has received increasing global attention. However, a comprehensive overview of the association between neighborhood risk factors and human health remains unclear due to the large number of neighborhood risk factor–human health outcome pairs.



On the basis of a whole year of panel discussions, we first obtained a list of 5 neighborhood domains, containing 33 uniformly defined neighborhood risk factors. We only focused on neighborhood infrastructure-related risk factors with the potential for spatial interventions through urban design tools. Subsequently, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic meta-review of 17 infrastructure-related risk factors of the 33 neighborhood risk factors (e.g., green and blue spaces, proximity to major roads, and proximity to landfills) was conducted using four databases, Web of Science, PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane Library, from January 2000 to May 2021, and corresponding evidence for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) was synthesized. The review quality was assessed according to the A MeaSurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) standard.



Thirty-three moderate-and high-quality reviews were included in the analysis. Thirteen major NCD outcomes were found to be associated with neighborhood infrastructure-related risk factors. Green and blue spaces or walkability had protective effects on human health. In contrast, proximity to major roads, industry, and landfills posed serious threats to human health. Inconsistent results were obtained for four neighborhood risk factors: facilities for physical and leisure activities, accessibility to infrastructure providing unhealthy food, proximity to industry, and proximity to major roads.



This meta-review presents a comprehensive overview of the effects of neighborhood infrastructure-related risk factors on NCDs. Findings on the risk factors with strong evidence can help improve healthy city guidelines and promote urban sustainability. In addition, the unknown or uncertain association between many neighborhood risk factors and certain types of NCDs requires further research.

Zhang et al 2023 EH_NeighborhoodReview.p
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Measuring Accessibility to Healthcare Using Taxi Trajectories Data: A Case Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction Cases in Beijing

Several methods have been applied to measure healthcare accessibility, ie, the Euclidean distance, the network distance, and the transport time based on speed limits. However, these methods generally produce less accurate estimates than actual measurements. This research proposed a method to estimate historical healthcare accessibility more accurately by using taxi Global Positioning System (GPS) traces. The proposed method’s advantages were evaluated vis a case study using acute myocardial infarction (AMI) cases in Beijing in 2008. Comparative analyses of the new measure and three conventionally used measures suggested that the median estimated transport time to the closest hospital with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability for AMI patients was 5.72 minutes by the taxi GPS trace-based measure, 2.42 minutes by the network distance-based measure, 2.28 minutes by the speed limit-based measure, 1.73 minutes by the Euclidean distance-based measure; and the estimated proportion of patients who lived within 5 minutes of a PCI-capable hospital was 38.17%, 89.20%, 92.52%, 95.05%, respectively. The three conventionally used measures underestimated the travel time cost and overestimated the percentage of patients with timely access to healthcare facilities. In addition, the new measure more accurately identifies the areas with low or high access to healthcare facilities. The taxi GPS trace-based accessibility measure provides a promising start for more accurately estimating accessibility to healthcare facilities, increasing the use of medical records in studying the effects of historical healthcare accessibility on health outcomes, and evaluating how accessibility to healthcare changes over time.
Su et al 2022 IJHPM_Accessibility.pdf
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Overall and gender-specific associations between marital status and out-ofhospital coronary death during acute coronary events: a cross-sectional study based on data linkage in Beijing, China

Objectives: To assess overall and gender-specific associations between marital status and out-of-hospital coronary death (OHCD) compared with patients surviving to hospital admission.


Design: A cross-sectional study based on linkage of administrative health databases.


Setting: Beijing, China.


Participants: From 2007 to 2019, 378 883 patients with acute coronary event were identified in the Beijing Monitoring System for Cardiovascular Diseases, a validated city-wide registration system based on individual linkage of vital registration and hospital discharge data.


Outcome measures: OHCD was defined as coronary death occurring before admission. Multilevel modified Poisson regression models were used to calculate the prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CIs.


Results: Among 378 883 acute coronary events, OHCD accounted for 33.8%, with a higher proportion in women compared with men (41.5% vs 28.7%, p<0.001). Not being married was associated with a higher proportion of OHCD in both genders, with a stronger association in women (PR 2.18, 95% CI 2.10 to 2.26) than in men (PR 1.97, 95% CI 1.91 to 2.02; p for interaction <0.001). The associations of OHCD with never being married (PR 1.98, 95% CI 1.88 to 2.08) and being divorced (PR 2.54, 95% CI 2.42 to 2.67) were stronger in men than in women (never married: PR 0.98, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.16; divorced: PR 1.47, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.61) (p for interaction <0.001 for both). Being widowed was associated with a higher proportion of OHCD in both genders, with a stronger association in women (PR 2.26, 95% CI 2.17 to 2.35) compared with men (PR 1.89, 95% CI 1.84 to 1.95) (p for interaction <0.001).


Conclusions: Not being married was independently associated with a higher proportion of OHCD and the associations differed by gender. Our study may aid the development of gender-specific public health interventions in high-risk populations characterised by marital status to reduce OHCD burden.

Deng et al 2022 BMJopen_MaritalStatus.pd
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Trends and Inequalities in the Incidence of Acute MyocardialInfarction among Beijing Townships, 2007–2018

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) poses a serious disease burden in China, but studies on small-area characteristics of AMI incidence are lacking. We therefore examined temporal trends and geographic variations in AMI incidence at the township level in Beijing. In this cross-sectional analysis, 259,830 AMI events during 2007–2018 from the Beijing Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance System were included. We estimated AMI incidence for 307 consistent townships during consecutive 3-year periods with a Bayesian spatial model. From 2007 to 2018, the median AMI incidence in townships increased from 216.3 to 231.6 per 100,000, with a greater relative increase in young and middle-aged males (35–49 years: 54.2%; 50–64 years: 33.2%). The most pronounced increases in the relative inequalities was observed among young residents (2.1 to 2.8 for males and 2.8 to 3.4 for females). Townships with high rates and larger relative increases were primarily located in Beijing’s northeastern and southwestern peri-urban areas. However, large increases among young and middle aged males were observed throughout peri-urban areas. AMI incidence and their changes over time varied substantially at the township level in Beijing, especially among young adults. Targeted mitigation strategies are required for high-risk populations and areas to reduce health disparities across Beijing.
Chang et al 2021 IJERPH.pdf
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Revolution in Approaches of Assessing Exposure to Built Environment

From Static Residence Based Approach and GIS Data to Individual Mobility Based Approach and Image Data

The health impact of individuals’ exposure to built environment is a key issue in the field of healthy city research. Individuals’ exposure to built environment means someone’s contact with the built environment, especially with the harmful factors. Accurate assessment of exposure to built environment is the basis of research on how built environment influences human health. As for the indicators and data in studies of assessing individuals’ exposure to built environment, indicators from 5D theory like density, diversity, design, destination accessibility and distance to transition were usually used, and to measure these indicators, GIS data were usually used. However, in these studies, less attention is paid to image data that can reflect the human-scale built environment characteristics such as the indicator of neighborhood physical disorder, which lead to limitation of assessment dimension. As for the assessment areas and spatial averaging methods in studies of assessing individuals’ exposure to built environment,  most of them take the neighborhood of individuals’ residence as the assessment area for the whole day, ignoring individuals’ mobility, which can be called the static residence-based approach. But there comes two problems in this approach, the first is that the region-based attributes could be affected by how the residential units are geographically delineated, which is called Uncertain Geographic Context Problem; and the second is that the assessment can be erroneous when people’s mobility is ignored, because people’s daily mobility may amplify or attenuate the exposures they experienced in their residential neighborhoods, which is called the Neighborhood Effect Averaging Problem. The consideration of individuals’ mobility is the common solution to avoid the above problems. Few studies have used the mobility-based approach to assess individuals’ exposure to built environment, however, these studies are mainly based on 5D indicators and GIS data. Thus, individual mobility has not been considered in assessment of exposure to built environment based on image data, which is a combined limitation in assessment indicator and data, as well as in assessment area and spatial averaging method. With the development of science and technology, the available tools for assessing exposure to built environment are becoming more and more abundant. It is suggested that in the future studies of assessing individuals’ exposure to built environment, for assessment data, image data that can reflect the human-scale quality of the built environment should be considered, and for assessment area, individuals’ mobility should be considered. Referring to the assessment of exposure to natural environment, in this article, two assessment methods of individuals’ exposure to built environment based on image data and individuals’ mobility are proposed. The first one is to assess exposure to built environment by overlaying individuals’ spatio-temporal trajectories with spatial distribution map of street view images. By auditing the street view images, the researchers can get the score of human-scale built environment characteristics, then by overlaying the map of built environment characteristics with the map of  individuals’ spatio-temporal trajectories, the researcher can get the time-weighted averaging built environment characteristics that the individual exposed to. The second one is to invite the individual to wear a wearable camera to record the built environment they exposed to. The wearable camera can take photos at regular intervals, and by auditing these photos and calculating the results, the researcher can get the time-weighted averaging built characteristics the individual exposed to. Compared with the two proposed methods, for assessment accuracy, the first one is less accurate because the update frequency of street view images is not high and the spatial coverage area of them is not complete; while the second one is more accurate because the photos taken by wearable camera can record the complete and real-time built environment information. For labor and capital cost, the first proposed method has less capital cost and more labor cost. It is because that the street view images can be freely downloaded but the wearable camera is costly to buy. And although the two proposed methods both have to audit images, on the basis, the first proposed method has to do more work in overlaying the trajectories. For the above reasons, the two proposed methods are suitable in different scenarios. The new methods proposed in this article fill the gap that the assessment of individuals’ exposure to built environment seldom consider the image based human scale built environment characteristics in existing studies, and with the consideration of mobility, the new methods are more accurate compared with the existing static residence-based assessment approach. The new assessment method of individuals’ exposure to built environment will help the exploration of the new theory in the field of healthy city research.
李文越和龙瀛 2021 西部人居环境科学学刊_建成环境暴露.pdf
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Healthy Neighborhood Evaluation System

Neighborhoods are places where people spend the most time in their lives. Neighborhoods have a decisive impact on the residents' health. With several important tasks, including the transformation of old neighborhoods, the maintenance of existing neighborhoods, and the construction of new neighborhoods in the future, a scientific and reasonable evaluation standard is urgently needed to guide the development of healthy neighborhoods. To build the evaluation system, this paper first clarifies the principles for selecting evaluation indicators, which include: 1) the indicators are selected from a humanistic perspective; 2) the pathways between neighborhoods environment and health outcomes are deeply considered; 3) the indicators are selected from multiple scales. Secondly, based on the combined perspectives of urban planning and public health, it identifies the indicators that affect the residents' health in neighborhoods and searches the literature through the quality assessment to provide evidence to support the accuracy and effectiveness of the indicators. Finally, it proposes prospect to the evaluation, including 1) it is urgent to improve and utilize the healthy neighborhoods based on the Chinese condition; 2) advanced technologies need to be widely applied in neighborhoods in the future; 3) the transitions in cities should be considered in the future development of neighborhoods. It hopes that relevant researchers and government leaders to realize the importance and urgency of healthy neighborhoods to build more healthy neighborhoods in China.

张雨洋等 2020 风景园林_健康居住小区.pdf
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Smart technologies help China combat COVID-19 via promoting city resilience

Details are available HERE

龙瀛 2020 城市规划_泛智慧城市技术.pdf
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李伟健和龙瀛 2020 上海城市规划_泛智慧城市技术.pdf
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Slides for the project
基于百度大数据的烟草与健康研究报告 adjusted logos FULL zx
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The Forum on Healthy Cities and Physical Activity

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